## Chapter Expectations

#### CHAPTER 11

1. Be able to calculate molarity, molality, mass percent, mole

fraction.

2. Be able to determine molecular mass from changes in freezing

points, boiling points or osmotic pressure

3. Be able to explain vapor pressure and how it changes due to

concentration and/or temperature

4. Be able to explain why freezing points changes decrease and

boiling point changes increase

#### CHAPTER 12

1. Be able to determine the rate law for integrated rate law data and

calculate the rate constant

2. Be able to determine the rate law for differential rate law data and

calculate the rate constant

3. Be able to draw an energy of activation curve for endothermic or

exothermic reactions with or without a catalyst.

4. Be able to determine concentration, k or t for first order

reactions. Give k calculate t one-half and vs.

#### CHAPTER 13

Be able to distinguish between equilibrium and kinetics

Be able to write the equilibrium expression from stoichiometry and recognize conversions for the same reaction with different stoichi ometry

Solve for K using IRE given one or more concentrations

Solve for concentration give K and using the IRE

Be able to apply Le Chatelier's Principle

#### CHAPTER 14

Distinguish among strong acids, strong bases, weak acids and weak bases

Be able to calculate the concentration of hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion of any acid or base solution

Be able to calculate the pH and pOH of the solutions

Be able to identify a salt as acidic, basic or neutral

Be able to calculate the pH and pOH of any salt solution

#### CHAPTER 15

Be able to identify a buffer as a solution with a weak acid and its common ion or a weak base and its common ion

Be able to calculate the concentration of hydrogen ion and hydroxide ion of any buffer solution

Be able to calculate the pH or pOH change when a small amount of acid or base is added to a buffer

#### CHAPTER 16

Be able to calculate solubility of a slightly soluble salt from its Ksp

Be able to calculate Ksp from the solubility of the salt.

Be able to calculate the solubility of a slightly soluble salt when a common ion is present and the Ksp is given

#### CHAPTER 16

Distinguish among kinetics, thermodynamics and equilibrium

Recognize spontaneous processes and predict entropy

State the laws of thermodynamics

Predict the effect of temperature on spontaneity

Calculate changes in entropy, enthalpy and free energy

Use the Gibbs Helmholtz equation

Calculate K from free energy and vice versa

#### CHAPTER 18

Calculate cell potentials for galvanic cells

Be able to diagram a galvanic cell, particularly with line diagram

Be able to determine if a cell is spontaneous.

Calculate the free energy from cell potential & vice versa

Use the Nerst equation to calculate cell potentials of non standard cells

#### CHAPTER 19

Recognize the types of radioactive decay and balance the equations

Be able to determine the half life or amount in radioactive decay

Be able to balance equations for nuclear transformations

Solve for time in radioactive decay

Be able to calculate energy changes

Be able to balance nuclear fission and fusion reactions.

## Social Networks

Facebook Twitter Instagram You Tube