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## Chapter Expectations

**Chapter 1 **

Distinguish between theory and law

Explain the scientific method

Distinguish among the terms: heterogeneous & homogeneous

compound and element

atom and molecule

matter**Chapter 2**

You must be able to do the following:

Write the IUPAC names of compounds when given the formula.

Write the formula from an IUPAC name.

**Chapter 3**

You must be able to do the following types of problems:

conversion of grams to moles (use atomic mass) and number of molecules (use Avogrado's number)

conversion of moles to grams and number of molecules

conversion of number of molecules to moles and grams

determine percent composition

empirical formula and molecular formula

write and balance chemical equations

calculate mass relationships among different chemicals in a balanced equation:

mole-mole relationship, gram-mole relationship and gram-gram relationship

determine limiting reactant

determine amountof excess reactant remaining

**CHAPTER 4**

Be able to use these terms: strong, weak, concentrated, dilute, electrolyte, acid, base

Be able to calculate the molarity of a solution from mass and volume

Given the molarity and volume, be able to caluate the number of grams.

Given the molaroty and grams, be able to calculate the volume.

Be able to determine dilutions

Know the solubility table on p. 144 and be able to predict what compounds wil or will not dissolve.

Be able to predict the precipitate formed when two solutions are mixed.

Be able to write ionic equations

Be able to calculate the mass precipitated in precipitation reactions.

Write acid-base equations and associated ionic equations

Be able to calculate neutralization reactions, volume or mass.

**CHAPTER 5**

Use the ideal gas equation (PV = nRT) to explain relationships among P, V, T and n.

Also use the equation to calculate P, V, T or n given the other values.

Be able to rearrange the ideal gas equation to solve for the density and molecular mass

Know the postulates of the kinetic molecular theory (KMT)

Be able to use the postulates of the KMT to explain the expected change of one value in the ideal gas equation compared to another value while everything else is constant.

Be able to explain the conditions under which a real gas does not act as an ideal gas.

**CHAPTER** **6**

Calculate quantities of heat from stoichiometric relationship

Calculate heat changes from Hess's law

Calculate the enthaply change from standard enthalpies of formation

Be able to explain a state function

Distinguish between temperature and heat

Determine whether system is exothermic or endothermic

**CHAPTER** 7

Be able to explain the Bohr Model of the atom and the experimental evidence

Be able to explain the Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom

Know the Heisenberg uncertainty principle

Describe the four types of quantum number and their physical meaning

Be able to calculate or create a table relating the four quantum numbers

Know the Pauli exclusion principle

Be able to write the electron structure for any element

Know the Aufbau principle

Be able to explain trends in ionization energies and atomic radii in terms of nuclear attraction, electron repulsions and shielding.

**CHAPTER** 8

Identify and explain the different types of bonding in different compounds.

ionic versus covalent

polar covalent versus nonpolar covalent

Explain electronegativity and be able to place elements in order of electronegativity

Build electron configurations for ions and organize ions according to size

Be able to draw Lewis dot structure using the octet rule

Be able to draw structures that are exceptions to the octet rule

Explain resonance and demonstrate it with appropriate Lewis Dot Structures

Be able to apply the Valence Shell Electron Repulsion Model (VSEPR) and use VSEPR to determine the molecular geometry of compounds.

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